# Parameters¶

Model parameters are very flexible, and can be accessed and modified in many parallel ways.

The parinfo class is built on top of lmfit-py’s parameters for compatibility with lmfit-py, but it builds on that. The code for the parameter overloading is in parinfo.py.

## Simple Example¶

Start with a simple example: if you want to limit parameters to be within some range, use the limits and limited parameters.

# define shorthand first:
T,F = True,False
sp.specfit(fittype='gaussian', guesses=[-1,5,1,0.5,2,1],
limits=[(0,0), (0,0), (0,0), (0,0), (0,0), (0,0)],
limited=[(F,T), (F,F), (T,F), (T,F),  (F,F), (T,F)])


In this example, there are two gaussian components being fitted because a Gaussian takes 3 parameters, an amplitude, a center, and a width, and there are 6 parameters in the input guesses.

The first line is forced to be an absorption line: its limits are (0,0) but limited=(F,T) so only the 2nd parameter, the upper limit, is respected: the amplitude is forced to be $$A\leq 0$$.

The second line has its amplitude (the 4th parameter in guesses) forced positive since its limits are also (0,0) but its limited=(T,F).

Both lines have their widths forced to be positive, which is true by default: there is no meaning to a negative width, since the width enters into the equation for a gaussian as $$\sigma^2$$.

Note that the need to limit parameters is the main reason for the existence of lmfit-py and mpfit.

## Tying Parameters¶

It is also possible to explicitly state that one parameter depends on another. If, for example, you want to fit two gaussians, but they must be at a fixed wavelength separation from one another (e.g., for fitting the [S II] doublet), use tied:

sp.specfit(fittype='gaussian', guesses=[1,6716,1,0.5,6731,1],
tied=['','','','','p',''])


If you use lmfit-py by specifying use_lmfit=True, you can use the more advanced mathematical constraints permitted by lmfit-py.

Optical fitting: The Hα-[NII] complex of a type-I Seyfert galaxy shows a more complete example using tied.

## Making your own parinfo¶

You can also build a parinfo class directly. Currently, the best example of this is in tests/test_formaldehyde_mm_radex.py.

Here’s an example of how you would set up a fit using parinfo directly.

Warning

There is a bug in the use_lmfit section of this code that keeps it from working properly. =(

amplitude0 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=0, parname='Amplitude0',
shortparname='$A_0$', value=1, limits=[0, 100], limited=(True,True))
width0 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=2, parname='Width0',
shortparname='$\sigma_0$', value=1, limits=(0, 0), limited=(True,False))
center0 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=1, parname='Center0',
shortparname='$\Delta x_0$', value=6716, limits=(0, 0), limited=(False,False))
amplitude1 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=3, parname='Amplitude1',
shortparname='$A_1$', value=1, limits=[0, 100], limited=(True,True))
width1 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=5, parname='Width1',
shortparname='$\sigma_1$', value=1, limits=(0, 0), limited=(True,False))
center1 = pyspeckit.parinfo.Parinfo(n=4, parname='Center1',
shortparname='$\Delta x_1$', value=6731, limits=(0, 0),
limited=(False,False), tied=center0)

parinfo = pyspeckit.parinfo.ParinfoList([amplitude0,center0,width0,amplitude1,center1,width1])

sp.specfit(parinfo=parinfo, use_lmfit=True)